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Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt

(Cracow, Poland: 28th August - 1st September 2002)
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An Early Egyptian City at Tell es-Sakhan near Gaza


Heidelberg (Germany)


The excavations in the Egyptian settlement of Tell es-Sakan have finally revealed the origin of the Egyptian artefacts found all over late EB I Palestine. The town is contemporary with En Besor, but much bigger and surrounded by a city-wall, which is the earliest Egyptian town wall, datable with certainty. It shows three consequent building-phases, correlating with 3 strata of occupation.

In the settlement different kinds of walls were found, most of them typical Egyptian in layout and building technique and belonging to domestic structures. Trench A was partially used as a kind of industrial area, shown by thick deposits of ashes and many hearths and fireplaces.

Around 90% of the pottery is that of a typical Egyptian settlement of that period (late EB Ib) with only ca. 10% of local Canaanean material, mainly hole-mouth jars. Of the whole ceramic set about is made up of imported Egyptian wine-jars. The majority of the remaining Egyptian material consists mainly of Egyptian shapes produced with local clay but Egyptian techniques (e.g. bread-moulds or so-called lotiform bowls).

Also Serekhs and seal-impressions as well as other finds show us that Tell es-Sakan is a major Egyptian centre of this period.


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