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International Conference
Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt

(Cracow, Poland: 28th August - 1st September 2002)
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Tell el-Farkha 2001-2002. The Pottery from the Tombs

Mariusz JUCHA

Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Kraków (Poland)

The site of Tell el-Farkha, situated in the Eastern Nile Delta, has been excavated by the Polish archaeological expedition since 1998. Until 2000 the work was mainly concentrated on the Western and Central Kom, where settlement remains were discovered. As the result of these work, the chronology of the site was established and divided into 7 main occupation phases dating from the Predynastic - Lower Egyptian Culture until the beginning of the Old Kingdom (IVth ? Dynasty).

Since 2001, apart from excavations on both Koms mentioned above, work was also started on the Eastern Kom, where three tombs were discovered and completely explored. During the following season of 2002, the next three tombs were also completely investigated. The chronological position of all these tombs spans a period of time contemporary with the end of the period of state formation in Egypt and the beginning of its existence as an organised state after the unification.

In this paper I will focus on the pottery found in the tombs discovered during the years 2001 and 2002. Among the pottery vessels found in these tombs the following groups can be distinguished.

*   Jars which have their ovoid shape in common, but which however show differences both in size and shape.
*   Large, broad storage jars with a single rope band pattern situated above shoulders.
*   Tall wine jars with three modelled rope bands situated above and below the shoulder, as well as above the base.
*   Jars of different shapes and sizes, which have as common characteristic a decoration with lightly impressed half-bows around the shoulder.
*   Small squat jars.
*   Small drop-shaped jars.
*   Bag shaped jars.
*   Cylindrical jars with decoration located beneath the rim. There are only a few examples, which mostly differ in size .
*   Cylindrical jars without decoration.
*   Trays.
*   Different types of rough ware .
*   Red coated and burnished bowls.
*   Bowls with a flat base and slightly concave walls, decorated with knobs composed into two rows; one row near the base and the second near the middle of the height of the pot.
*   Vessels with a flat base and straight convergent walls.


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