Francesco Raffaele

I am Italian (NAPOLI) age 40 studying Egyptology

My main interests are EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY, LANUAGE AND CULTURE expecially concerning with the Late Predynastic, Protodynastic/ Early Dynastic Egyptian history from about 3900 to 2600 B.C.).
I am the webmaster of the Internet site EARLY DYNASTIC EGYPT.
About myself
My Hobbies other than reading Ancient Egypt books and papers are: Mesoamerican Cultures (Expecially MAYA, Olmeca, Azteca), megaliths, archaeoastronomy, ancient writings; hiking (as a Lerka Minerka) in the wild shooting landscape photographs, macros, snakes , fishing (long ago, and nearly always releasing the live preys) & playing Football.
Fav. Writers: Emilio Salgari, E.A. Poe, Stephen King, Terry Brooks (First "Shannara" Sword & Sorcery Trilogy).
Favourite actors:
Eduardo De Filippo, Totò, Robert De Niro, Anthony Hopkins, Bud Spencer & Terence Hill (!), Nicole Grimaudo.
Best Movies: The Shawshank Redemption (It. Le Ali della Libertà, 1994), Once Upon a Time in America (Sergio Leone, 1980), Il Padrino (I-II, F.F. Coppola).
Best Comics: Tex Willer (have the whole series), The Savage Sword of Conan (and John Buscema & Alfredo Alcala, Rudy Nebres' artwork).
Favourite historical characters: Narmer, Den, Khasekhemwy, Netjerykhet.
Best Search Engine: GOOGLE.


I am going to have a degree at IUO Napoli with a thesis on the Second Dynasty (2003-4). My doctoral dissertation will be centered on Late Predynastic culture.
I have passed 4 exams of Egyptology at Napoli IUO University, all with the maximum marks (Prof. Rodolfo Fattovich - Dr. Rosanna Pirelli), and also did other exams of Archaeology (Prof. Alessandro de Maigret, Prof. Carlo Zaccagnini, Prof. Rodolfo Fattovich, Prof. Bruno D' Agostino, Prof. Massimiliano Marazzi).

In July 1996 I have participated to archaeological excavations in Cuma (dir. Prof. Bruno D'Agostino) in two trenches on its northern wall.

In August 1998 I joined the Missione Archeologica Isola di Vivara (dir. Prof. Massimiliano Marazzi, C. Pepe), digging a section of the proto-historic settlement at Punta d' Alaca.

In 2001 I won a scholarship at IUO which allowed me a two months stay in Egypt (2-4/ 2001) where I made researches for my thesis.

In 2001 I wrote an article on "Dynasty 0" which has been chosen for publication in Aegyptiaca Helvetica 2003. More articles have followed in 2002-2006, on the term "Dynasty", on the so called "Dynasty 00" and others.
I have presented lectures on Early Egypt culture in Imola, Faenza, Barcellona. And of course I am the webmaster and author of the present website (

Founding member of ANSE ( We have organized an International Congress of Egyptology in Napoli (2008), Travels in Egypt (2008-on) and a 1st Level Master
in Egyptology (at Istituto Universitario "L'Orientale", Napoli, 2010).

Co-edited the publication of "Recent Discoveries and Latest Researches in Egyptology. Proceedings of the First Neapolitan Congress of Egyptology. Naples, June 18th-20th 2008", F. Raffaele, M. Nuzzolo and I. Incordino (eds.), Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2010.

Author of several lectures on Predynastic/Early Dynastic Egyptian history, art, writing, State Formation, held in Italy and abroad.

--- Francesco Raffaele Bibliography ---

La Fin de la Période Pré-dynastique et la Dynastie 0: une introduction, Part 1 in: Toutankhamon Magazine 1, 2001, p. 20-23; Pt. 2 in: TM 2, 2002, 26-29; Pt. 3 in: TM 3, 2002 26-29.

Dynastie 00: les premiers rois d'Egypte, Part 1 in: Toutankhamon Magazine 6 (Dec/Jan 2002-2003) p. 78-80; Part 2 in: TM 7 (Feb/Mar 2003) p. 70-74 [Cf. HERE]

On the terms "Dynasty 0" and "Dynasty 00", in: Boletín de la Asociación Andaluza de Egiptología BASADE 1, 2003, p. 101-113 (English), p. 114-127 (Spanish). Read it HERE

"Dynasty 0", in: A. Loprieno, S. Bickel (eds.), Aegyptiaca Helvetica 17, 2003, 99-141 [Written in 2001]

An unpublished Early Dynastic Stone Vessel fragment with incised inscription naming the goddess Bastet. CCdE 7/8, 2005, 27-46 [PDF]

Stone Vessels in Early Dynastic Egypt. CCdE 7/8, 2005, 47-60. [PDF]

A lost Late Predynastic-Early Dynastic royal scene from Gharb Aswan. (S. Hendrickx, N. Swelim, F. Raffaele, M. Eyckerman, R. Friedman), in: Archéo-Nil 19, 2009, 169-178.
[PDF - in Nabil Swelim's Website]

Animal Rows and Ceremonial Processions in Late Predynastic Egypt. In: F. Raffaele, M. Nuzzolo and I. Incordino (eds.), "Recent Discoveries and Latest Researches in Egyptology. Proceedings of the First Neapolitan Congress of Egyptology. Naples, June 18th-20th 2008", Wiesbaden, 2010, 245-285.
[PDF - 4,9 Mb]

The Reign of Horus Qa'a, and the end of the First Dynasty. In: CCdE 13, 2010. In preparation.

ON-LINE articles:

Turtles in Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt, 2002 (HERE)

- More articles -

--- Reviews ---


Desidero dedicare questo sito alla memoria di Bastiaan Lieffering e Maurilio Tracanna, e alla loro passione per l'Egitto Antico.
Grazie per i consigli e per il vostro tempo. F.R.



On a window of a house in Kos, Grece (1992)

CISE, Imola, with Fekri Hassan (2004)

CISE, Imola, with Jochem Kahl (2004)   CISE, Imola, with Stan Hendrickx (2004)